Archive for June, 2011

Protothreads versus State Machines

Thursday, June 9th, 2011 Miro Samek

For a number of years I’ve been getting questions regarding Protothreads and comparisons to state machines. Here is what I think.

Protothreads are an attempt to write event-driven code in a sequential way. To do so, protothreads introduce a concept of “blocking abstraction” to event-driven programming–something that event-driven programming is trying to get rid of in the first place.

Obviously, to be compatible with event-driven programming, protothreads cannot *really* block, at least not in the same sense as traditional threads of a conventional blocking RTOS can. Instead, a protothread is still called for every event and still *returns* to the caller without really blocking. However, when a given event does not match the “blocking abstraction”, the protothread returns without doing anything and without progressing. Only when the current event matches the “blocking abstraction” the protothread advances to the next “blocking abstraction” and also returns. Please note that protothreads allow standard flow control statements, such as IF-THEN-ELSE and WHILE loops between any two “blocking abstractions”. Therefore the program feels more “natural” for designers used to the traditional sequential programming style. You simply see the expected sequence of events.

Protothreads are indeed a simplification, but only for *sequential problems*, in which only specific sequences of events are valid and all other sequences are invalid. Examples for using protothreads include the sequence of events for initializing a radio modem.

However, protothreads lose their advantage entirely if there are many valid sequences of events. This is actually the most common situation in event-driven systems. State machines are capable to handle multiple sequences of events easily. In fact, state machines are getting simpler when the sequence of events matters less. In contrast, protothreads are getting more and more complex when they need to accept more sequences of events.

So, in the end, protothreads are an attempt to replace state machines, which are considered complex and messy by the inventors of the protothread mechanism. But, the “messiness” of state machines is obviously a very subjective statement. A good state machine implementation technique can remove many (most) accidental difficulties of coding state machines. I mean, if a state machine as depicted in a state diagram is simple, and if the code does not reflect this simplicity, the problem is with the implementation technique, not with the inherent complexity of a state machine.

The bottom line: good state machine implementation techniques eliminate most reasons for using protothreads. State machines are far more generic and flexible, because they can easily handle multiple sequences of events. In comparison, protothreads are intentionally crippled state machines that transition implicitly from one “blocking abstraction” to another executing code in between as the “actions” on such implicit transition.

Is an RTOS really the best way to design embedded systems?

Tuesday, June 7th, 2011 Miro Samek

LinkedIn RTE group

Recently I’ve been involved in a discussion on the LinkedIn Real-Time Embedded Engineering group, which I started with the question “Is an RTOS really the best way to design embedded systems?“.

The discussion, which has swollen to way over 600 comments by now, has sometimes low signal to noise ratio, but I believe it is still interesting.

I consider this discussion to be a continuation of the topic from my April blog post I hate RTOSes.

As before, my main point is centered on the fundamental mismatch of using the sequential programming paradigm (RTOS or superloop) to solve problems that are event-driven by nature.

I’m really curious what the visitors to EmbeddedGurus think.