Archive for May, 2008


Tuesday, May 20th, 2008 Nigel Jones

I have been writing this blog now for about 18 months and in reviewing my posts I’ve noticed that my posts are often critical of technologies, manufacturers and or products. Well today is a first for me, because I’d like to offer my first product endorsement. The endorsement goes to visualSTATE from IAR . I’ve been using this product for about the same length of time I’ve had this blog and have concluded that it represents the biggest step forward in productivity for me since I made the move from assembly language to C. (Yes folks, the move from C to C++ was a virtual non-event for me, as I found almost no improvement in my productivity, mainly I suspect because I have written for years in object oriented C).

Anyway, back to the topic of visualSTATE. If you aren’t familiar with it, then you should be. It allows you to design complex, hierarchical state machines with ease and to push a button and obtain code that just seems to work. I have now completed three projects using this tool and am well on the way to finishing a fourth. In all cases, the boost to my productivity has been astonishing. I find that I spend most of my time on the functional design and almost no time on debugging the high level application.

visualSTATE’s main strengths seem to be in the following areas:

1. Products that are highly modal – i.e. a product can be in one of N operating modes depending upon circumstances..
2. User interfaces. I’ve had great success with products that contain bespoke LCD and membrane keypads.
3. Products that contain complex sequencing requirements, particularly when coupled with a plethora of failure modes that have to be handled.

I’ve found the learning curve on visualSTATE to be quite long – but definitely worth it. Although you can certainly be up and running in a day or so, I found that it took me a lot longer to work out how best to partition a problem between visualSTATE and traditional code. However, with experience I’m now finding that I rarely get it wrong anymore.

I’ve also found some very nice and unexpected benefits from visualSTATE. To wit:

1. Code reuse. visualSTATE does of course require some code support. However, I’ve found that a lot of this code can be reused. As a result, I can now bring up a new board with a visualSTATE processing engine running on it in a matter of hours. Try doing that with your average RTOS.
2. Although we all know that lots of small functions are “better” than a few big functions, human nature being what it is, we tend to just expand an existing function rather than decomposing it into its constituent parts. Well when using visualSTATE I find that it almost forces one in to writing lots of small (less than 5 lines) functions. I suspect that these small functions are part of the reason that my visualSTATE projects just seem to work with almost no debugging time.
3. Documentation. As well as the documentation benefits associated with small functions (i.e. the comments actually match the code!), visualSTATE comes with a terrific documentation tool. Many of my clients quite rightly demand excellent documentation on the designs I do for them. The documentation engine in visualSTATE makes this a breeze!
4. Communication. My clients often ask questions such as “what does the code do if …”. In a traditional project this usually means pouring through complex code trying to ascertain the answer. With visualSTATE projects I find that most of the time I simply look at the state charts. Since the state charts are effectively the code (since they are tied together), then I can give an answer quickly and authoritatively – which makes my clients happy and helps assure me of future business.

All in all, kudos to IAR for such a great tool.


Integer Log functions

Sunday, May 11th, 2008 Nigel Jones

A few months ago I wrote about a very nifty square root function in Jack Crenshaw’s book “Math Toolkit for Real-time Programming”. As elegant as the square root function is, it pails in comparison to what Crenshaw calls his ‘bitlog’ function. This is some code that computes the log (to base 2 of course) of an integer – and does it in amazingly few cycles and with amazing accuracy. The code in the book is for a 32 bit integer; the code I present here is for a 16 bit integer. Although you are of course free to use this code as is, I strongly suggest you buy Crenshaw’s book and read about this function. You’ll see it truly is a work of art. BTW, one of the things I really like about Crenshaw is that he takes great pains to note that he didn’t invent this algorithm. Rather he credits Tom Lehman. Kudos to Lehman.

 FUNCTION: bitlog

 Computes 8 * (log(base 2)(x) -1).

 -    The uint16_t value whose log we desire

 -    An approximation to log(x)


uint16_t bitlog(uint16_t x)
    uint8_t    b;
    uint16_t res;

    if (x <=  8 ) /* Shorten computation for small numbers */
        res = 2 * x;
        b = 15; /* Find the highest non zero bit in the input argument */
        while ((b > 2) && ((int16_t)x > 0))
            x <<= 1;
        x &= 0x7000;
        x >>= 12;

        res = x + 8 * (b - 1);

    return res;