Posts Tagged ‘memory’

Minimizing memory use in embedded systems Tip #3 – Don’t use printf()

Thursday, September 24th, 2009 Nigel Jones

This is the third in a series of tips on minimizing memory consumption in embedded systems.

If you are like me, the first C program you saw was K&R’s famous ‘hello, world’ code, reproduced below:

 printf(“hello, world\n”);

In my opinion, this program has done incalculable harm to the realm of embedded systems programming! I appreciate that this is a rather extreme statement – but as is usual I have my reasons …

The interesting thing about this code is that it introduces printf() – and as such gives the impression that printf() is an important (and useful) part of the C language. Well I suppose it is / was for those programming computers. However for those programming embedded systems, printf() and its brethren (sprintf, vsprintf, scanf etc) are in general a disaster waiting to happen for the unwary. Here is why:

Code Size

The printf() functions are immensely sophisticated functions, and as such consume an incredible amount of code space. I have clear memories of an early 8051 compiler’s printf() function consuming 8K of code space (and this was at a time when an 8K program was a decent size). Since then, compiler vendors have put a lot of effort into addressing this issue. For example IAR allows you to specify the functionality (and hence size) of printf() as a library option. Notwithstanding this, if your available code space is less than 32K the chances are you really shouldn’t be using printf(). But what if you need some of the features of printf()? Well in that case I recommend you write your own formatting function. For example I often find that I have a small microcontroller project that needs to talk over a serial link using an ASCII protocol. In cases like these, the easy thing to do is to generate the requisite string using a complex format string with sprintf(). However, with a little bit of ingenuity you should be able to create the string using a series of calls to simple formatting routines. I can guarantee that you’ll end up with more compact code.

Stack Size

Barely a day goes by that someone doesn’t end up on this blog because they have a stack overflow caused by printf(), sprintf() or vsprintf(). Why is this? Well if you are ever feeling bored one day, try and write the printf() function. If you do, you’ll soon find that it is not only difficult, but also that it requires a large amount of space for the function arguments, a lot of temporary buffer space for doing the formatting as well as a large number of intermediate variables. In short, it needs a tremendous amount of stack space. Indeed I have had embedded systems that need a mere 32 bytes of stack space prior to using printf() – and 200+ bytes after I’ve added in printf(). The bottom line is that for small embedded systems, formatted output needs a ridiculous amount of stack space – and that as a result stack overflow is a real possibility.

Variable length arguments

I’m sure most people use sprintf() etc without fully appreciating that these functions use a variable length argument list. I’ll leave for another day the full implications of this. However for now you should just consider that MISRA bans the use of variable length arguments – and that you should take this as a strong hint to avoid these functions in embedded systems.

Execution time

The execution time of printf() can be spectacularly long. For example the ‘hello world’ program given in the introduction requires 1000 cycles on an AVR CPU. Changing it to the almost as trivial function shown below increases the execution to 6371 cycles:

int main( void )
 int i = 89;

 printf("hello, world %d\n", i);

Lest you think this is an indictment of the AVR processor, the same code for a generic ARM processor still takes a whopping 1738 cycles. In short, printf() and its brethren can take a really long time to execute.

Now do the above mean you should always eschew formatted output functions? No! Indeed I recommend the use of vsprintf() here for certain classes of problem. What I do recommend is that you think long and hard before using these functions to ensure that you really understand what you are doing (and getting) when you use them.

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