It’s hard for me to believe, but it’s been nearly 8 years since I wrote the popular “Real Men Program in C” blog post (turned article). That post was prompted by a conversation with a couple of younger programmers who told me: “C is too hard for programmers of our generation to bother mastering.”
I ended then:
If you accept  that C shall remain important for the foreseeable future and that embedded software is of ever-increasing importance, then you’ll begin to see trouble brewing. Although they are smart and talented computer scientists, [younger engineers] don’t know how to competently program in C. And they don’t care to learn.
But someone must write the world’s ever-increasing quantity of embedded software. New languages could help, but will never be retrofitted onto all the decades-old CPU architectures we’ll continue to use for decades to come. As turnover is inevitable, our field needs to attract a younger generation of C programmers.
What is the solution? What will happen if these trends continue to diverge?
Now that a substantial period of years has elapsed, I’d like to revisit two key phrases from that quote: Is C still important? and Is there a younger generation of C programmers? There’s no obvious sign of any popular “new language” nor of any diminution of embedded systems.
Is C Still Important?
The original post used survey data from 1997-2009 to establish that C was (through that entire era) the dominant programming language for embedded systems. The “primary” programming languages used in the final year were C (62%), C++ (24%), and Assembly (5%).
As the figure below shows (data from Barr Group‘s 2017 Embedded Systems Safety & Security Survey), C has now consolidated its dominance as the lingua franca of embedded programmers: now at 71%. Use of C++ remains at about the same level (22%) while use of assembly as the primary language has basically disappeared.
Conclusion: Obviously, C is still important in embedded systems.
Is There a Younger Generation of C Programmers?
The next figure shows the years of paid, professional experience of embedded system designers (data from the same source). Unfortunately, I don’t have data from that older time period about the average ages of embedded programmers. But what looks potentially telling about this is that the average years of experience of American designers (two decades) is much higher than the averages in Europe (14 years) and Asia (11). I dug into the data on the U.S. engineers a bit and found that the experience curve was essentially flat, with no bigger younger group like in the worldwide data.
Conclusion: The jury is still out. It’s possible there is already a missing younger generation in the U.S., but there also seems to be some youth coming up into our field in Asia at least.
It should be really interesting to see how this all plays out in the next 8 years. I’m putting a tickler in my to-do list to blog about this topic again then!
Footnote: Same as last time, I’m not excluding women. There are plenty of great embedded systems designers who are women–and they mostly program in C too, I presume.